Introduction to Geography

Where did you go this October holiday?

A cool waterfall, sandy coast or maybe a snow peaked mountain?

English Teacher Online welcomes you back to school with a fun filled week and an introduction to geography.

Geography is the study of the physical features of the Earth and its atmosphere including populations, resources, land use, and industries.

Key Facts

The Earth’s core is very hot!

Earth’s surface or crust is made up of tectonic plates.

Landforms are the shapes found on the surface of the Earth.

Landforms are shaped by earthquakes, volcanic activity and the movement of tectonic plates. They are also shaped by processes like weathering and erosion.

Some Types of Landforms

Mountain – A place on the Earth’s surface that is much higher than the land around it.

Volcano – An opening in the Earth’s crust where molten lava, gases and ash are ejected.

Plateau – A flat area higher than the area around it.

Hill – A naturally raised area of land, not as high or craggy as a mountain.

Valley – A lowland area between higher lands such as mountains.

Desert – A region that has little rainfall and therefore doesn’t support much animal or plant life.

Canyon – A deep valley with steep sides. Often with a stream flowing through it.

Basin – A hollow or depression in the Earth’s surface surrounded by higher ground.

Plain – A very flat area on Earth’s surface with few trees.

The Role of Water

There is the same amount of water on Earth today as there has always been. The water keeps moving around in an endless cycle called the water cycle.

Over 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered by water.

Ocean – The largest bodies of water on Earth that cover most of the Earth’s surface.

Coast – An area where the land ends and the ocean begins.

Island – Land that is completely surrounded by water.

Peninsula – A piece of land that is surrounded by water on three sides.

Lagoon – A shallow body of water; especially one separated from the sea by sandbars of coral reefs.

Lake – Water that is completely surrounded by land.

River – A long flowing body of water that empties into another body of water.

Waterfall – A steep fall of flowing water over a precipice.

So, did you visit any interesting landforms this October break?
What processes do you think helped shape them?

Share your ideas in the comment section or email Steve@EnglishTeacherOnline.Org

Author: Teacher Steve

Teacher Steve is 52 years old, happily married but has no children of his own. He's a fully qualified teacher who has been teaching English in sunny Thailand for over 15 years. Teacher Steve loves to write and decided to start English Teacher Online, in December 2016, to help students study English for free. He works tirelessly so that students can become fluent in English, empowering them to work and travel the world. You can also watch him teaching live at

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